No one should be surprised by the public outrage towards the High Court decision in Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission, because people care about their individual rights and liberty, care about the fundamental values this nation stands for, care about the democracy of their country. I have seen reactions from citizens who rarely pay attention to politics expressing total shock and disbelief. Citizens see clearly that with this decision the nation’s and multinational powerful economic interests are on their way marching onto the dominance in our electoral process, the individual citizens’ voice is to become overwhelmingly weak, and our already weakened democracy is to become further dysfunctional.
In one of my posts, I quoted Joseph Costello, “One should approach the legacy of the Founding Fathers with a sense of reverence and awe. It is the brightest shining governance star ever created by the mind of man.” The Founding Fathers framed our democracy with the belief and emphasis “that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights”. It is this framework that empowers the people to make this nation a nation where individual liberty is protected, and freedom flourishes. Make no mistake that, in this framework, corporations are not included to bear the same unalienable Rights. That is not an omission, not a negligence. That is by design. Because, as the Constitution starts, WE THE PEOPLE are what to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity. NOTHING ELSE!
In fact, the founders explicitly indicated that corporations are not people, as Chief Justice John Marshall referred to the corporation as an “artificial being, invisible, intangible“. And they had warned us on the possible challenge corporations could impose to this framework. Thomas Jefferson told us that America must “crush in its birth the aristocracy of our moneyed corporations, which dare already to challenge our government to a trial of strength and bid defiance to the laws of our country.” And “…there is an evil which ought to be guarded against in the indefinite accumulation of property from the capacity of holding it in perpetuity by ecclesiastical corporations. The power of all corporations, ought to be limited in this respect. The growing wealth acquired by them never fails to be a source of abuses.“
Abraham Lincoln went straight to the heart of the endangerment, “Corporations have been enthroned and an era of corruption in high places will follow, and the money power of the country will endeavor to prolong its reign by working upon the prejudices of the people until all wealth is aggregated in a few hands and the Republic is destroyed.”
Our political arena these days is amazingly polarized. There are big sharks out there who enjoy thoroughly politicizing everything. But this should not be viewed as a liberal issue, or a progressive issue, or a conservative issue. This is about common citizenship against special interests taking away common citizenship. It is about restoring the institutional integrity of the democratic process. It’s worth to note that it was Teddy Roosevelt, a Republican president, who called for public financing of elections and told Congress, “All contributions by corporations to any political committee or for any political purpose should be forbidden by law.” It was also president Roosevelt who signed the Tillman Act in 1907, which banned corporate donations to federal campaigns.
Now, let’s take a look at the case and ruling process.
Citizens United, a conservative nonprofit 501(c)(4) organization, sought to run television commercials promoting its film Hillary: The Movie, a documentary critical of then-Senator Hillary Clinton, and to show the movie on DirecTV. The Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002 (BCRA)(AKA McCain-Feingold), 2 U.S.C. § 441b, prohibited corporations and unions from using their general treasury funds to make independent expenditures for speech that is an “electioneering communication” or for speech that expressly advocates the election or defeat of a candidate. In January 2008, the United States District Court for the District of Columbia ruled that the commercials violated provisions in the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002 (McCain-Feingold) restricting “electioneering communications” 30 days before primaries. The Court found that the film had no other purpose than to discredit Clinton; Citizens United argued that the film was fact-based and nonpartisan.
The Supreme Court docketed this case on August 18, 2008, and heard oral arguments on March 24, 2009. A decision was expected sometime in the early summer months of 2009.
However, on June 29, 2009, the Supreme Court issued an order directing the parties to re-argue the case on September 9, 2009.
Instead of looking into the case itself, and whether the ruling of the District Court, after hearing all parties, would hold legal ground, the five Justices, Chief Justice John Roberts, Justice Samuel Alito, Justice Anthony Kennedy, Justice Antonin Scalia, and Justice Clarence Thomas, decided to re-argue the case themselves. They motioned it to an matter of an entirely different magnitude: corporate funding of independent political broadcasts in candidate elections. They used it as a vehicle to finalize a happy-ending of an over-a-century power-influence pursuit of the special interests and their lobbyists. In doing so, they overturn two precedents: Austin v. Michigan Chamber of Commerce (1990), and McConnell v. Federal Election Commission (2003). This unprecedentedly process redefines the roles of the Court system and Judges and Justices working within them. It contradicts Justice Roberts’ own understanding of these roles:
“Judges and justices are servants of the law, not the other way around. They make sure everybody plays by the rules. But it is a limited role. Nobody ever went to a ball game to see the umpire. Judges have to have the humility to recognize that they operate within a system of precedents, shaped by other judges equally striving to live up to the judicial oath.”
“I will remember that it is my job to call balls and strikes and not to pitch or bat.”
“I do think that it is a jolt to the legal system when you overrule a precedent. … It is not enough that you may think the prior decision was wrongly decided.”
“The role of the judge is limited; the judge is to decide the cases before them; they’re not to legislate; they’re not to execute the laws.”
They RULED that corporate funding of independent political broadcasts in candidate elections cannot be limited, because doing so would be in noncompliance with the First Amendment. And Justice Kennedy wrote: “If the First Amendment has any force, it prohibits Congress from fining or jailing citizens, or associations of citizens, for simply engaging in political speech.”
This is truly amazing! Engaging in political speech = Corporate Funding political campaigns? Jailing associations of citizens? Limiting corporate funding in elections is in noncompliance with the First Amendment?
I found it amusing that the five justices of concurrences for this ruling would somehow believe the intelligence of the citizens and common sense could be so bluntly insulted.
The First Amendment, submitted to the states for ratification on September 25, 1789 and adopted on December 15, 1791, was to amend the Constitution, in part, for its lack of adequate guarantees for civil liberties. The entire text for the First Amendment reads the follows:
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.
Reading the above simple text, and knowing a little bit of the background and the intent, can any one, let alone the highest authorities of law, not derive to the conclusion that (1) the First Amendment addresses protecting rights and civil liberties for the people, and (2) money is not speech? “A corporation, after all, is not endowed by its creator with inalienable rights“, as dissenting Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg declared during oral hearings.
Any attempt of interpreting the above text to suggest the First Amendment implies that the rights outlined in it and the civil liberties it intends to protect should also apply to non-human entities is absurd and manipulative.
Apparently, this AMBIQUITY by not putting down the words NOTCorporation was all Justice Roberts and his allies needed to crack the dam open.
Before the flood washes off our democracy entirely, we have no choice but fix it, with legislative and constitutional remedies:
push for a Constitution amendment that firmly establish that money is not speech, and that human beings, not corporations, are persons entitled to constitutional rights.
Dear fellow citizens, this ruling puts our democracy in endangerment. Thus the individual liberty and constitutional rights for each and every one of us are in jeopardy. It exposes how venerable our democratic system can be. Now it is time for all of us, Democrats and Republicans, liberals and conservatives, and all in between, to be united as ONE in saving our democracy, for ourselves, for our children, and for generations to come.
In his statement on the January 21th Supreme Court Decision in Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission, Ralph Nader begins with “Today’s decision by the U.S. Supreme Court … shreds the fabric of our already weakened democracy by allowing corporations to more completely dominate our corrupted electoral process.”
Two pieces of reality we should be seriously alarmed: already weakened democracy, and corrupted electoral process.
In addition, we must also be concerned about the role of the justices and the Court itself in our democratic system, because I am worried that we have become too comfortable and too accustomed to the apparent political affiliation these judges display that tampers their ability to defend our constitution independently, as demanded by their constitutional duties.
With this unprecedented ruling, by that I mean it proactively overrules a century long statute and two precedents, the Court shows no interest in facing the harsh reality that the vast majority has already lost faith in our government and agrees with Nader’s assessment of “weakened democracy” and “our corrupted electoral process”. No matter how eloquently Justice John Roberts reasoned the ruling and how forceful he tried to attach this to the First Amendment, this decision does not help repairing the “weakened democracy”, it does not help rebuilding the confidence of the public on the government, it does not help encouraging voters to actively participate in the electoral process. It fails to address the fundamental purpose of any fair election law at any given historical junction or all time that these laws are to protect the institutional integrity of the democratic process.
Let’s face it, how many Americans now think their voices and votes can make a difference? How many believe that the institution is focusing on improving the well-being of the people, that the government is dependent upon the People and independent of anything else? America has already seen how money works in Washington. This Court decision only furthers the powerless-feeling in the People.
However, our electoral process has already been corrupted, long before this Court decision, long before the Citizens United vs FEC case. Even without the power of the unlimited corporate spending granted by this ruling in political speeches, the campaigns of Republicans and Democrats alike had already been Kotou-ing to corporations, unions and other special interests for their supplies of money, whether through PACs or large contributions bundled by lobbyists. This ruling just makes it so much easier for both sides – suppliers and recipients. It makes the campaigns that much less “dependent of the People”.
When the People stop speaking, the end of democracy is near.
I do have faith on the People. Americans always speak out loud and clear in critical junctions of the democracy. If nothing else, this ruling services a wake-up call. It helps us to lift the cover and see the threat our democracy is facing. Now it is our turn to stand up, speak out, act strongly and urgently in taking care our own business: clean up the corruption and restore the institutional integrity of the democratic process!
We can repeatedly remind the politicians that our government is “of the people, by the people, for the people.” However, we should have by now come to the realization that money speaks LOUDER.
So, we need action. We need legislation to protect our democracy. And, as Mr. Nader points out, “ It is indeed time for a Constitutional amendment to prevent corporate campaign contributions from commercializing our elections and drowning out the civic and political voices and values of citizens and voters.”
We do have concerned citizens as well as House Representatives and Senators who have realized the severity of the situation that they proceeded with certain vital measures, among them:
Speech at a Martin Luther King Day Gathering in Washington DC, 1991
Edited on Martin Luther King Day 2010
Special MLK Tribute – by friend and artist, Haiyan
Today we gather here to celebrate Martin Luther King Day.
We celebrate an enchanted life of celebration, a life that inspires generations and generations to come.
We celebrate an everlasting spirit of enlightening, a spirit that transcends the fear within in commanding respect and longing equal rights.
We celebrate a mighty power in a human being, a power not derived from wealth or privilege, not from Royal heritage or government post, not even from a public election. A power emerges from the conviction and dedication to the unconditional love for the human race. A power that is deeply rooted in each and everyone of us that when it is finally being ignited there is no mountain of injustice that can not be flattened and removed.
We are here to let you know, Dr. King, that your Dream is being carried on not just in the hills of Georgia and the state of Mississippi but everywhere in this world; that your call to Let Freedom Ring is not just echoed in the hilltops of New Hampshire, the mountains of New York, the Alleghenies of Pennsylvania, the Rockies of Colorado, and the slopes of California, but is being responded in chorus in the mountains of Himalayan, in the valleys of Danube, along the shore of the pacific ocean, and in the heart of the Los Llanos plains.
People, people are rising up in pride and dignity. People are saying No to tyranny and reign of terror. But, the ultimate victory for the peace-loving humanity is far from being claimed. In those states of totalitarian, laws are used to defend dictatorships instead of protect the people; peaceful calls for harmony are being suppressed with brutality instead of being cherished; human rights champions are being imprisoned instead of being praised. Even in this great nation of George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Abraham Lincoln, and you, Dr. Martin Luther King, too often democracy is comprised to special interests, too often the so-called ideology overshadows the commitment to put the people first.
These words of Dr. King that “I am not unmindful that some of you have come here out of great trials and tribulations. Some of you have come fresh from narrow jail cells. And some of you have come from areas where your quest — quest for freedom left you battered by the storms of persecution and staggered by the winds of police brutality” describe well for our gathering today, in the context of the global family of humanity. We must “hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal.”
When we pay tribute to Dr. Martin Luther King on this special day, the best gift we can present to him is to remind ourselves about his dream, to continue his cause each and every day until there is no one in this world finds himself an exile in his own land.
We have a dream: let freedom ring from every corner in this world!
On Tuesday, January 12th, David Drummond, Google’s SVP of Corporate Development and Chief Legal Officer, released a statement on Google’s official blog announcing the company’s decision to end censorship in China, indicating doing so the company would be facing the “potentially far-reaching consequences” of losing that market.
This conduct is of great significance, particularly when the financial and business world had been tainted with greed and irresponsibility in recent years, from the wall street giants’ abusive behaviors, to the short sighted operations that nearly emptied the US job market.
There should be a limit on everything. This action shows Google has its limits of acceptance. In business practices, there is a set of international trade rules not only stresses fair trade principles but also embraces the spirit of ethics and protective measures to basic rights. Unfortunately, we have seen too often that businesses chose ignoring these moral standards as well as the fair trade principles in exchange for a looks good stats sheet. Let’s chew on the following statement from AFL-CIO: “Since 2001, the nation has lost more than 2.5 million manufacturing jobs and more than 850,000 professional service and information sector jobs. No one knows for sure how many of these jobs have been lost due to increased import competition and shifts in production abroad, since no comprehensive official data are collected. Various independent estimates indicate the number of white-collar jobs lost to shipping work overseas over the past few years is in the hundreds of thousands and millions are at risk in the next five to ten years. But the number of jobs lost need not be overwhelming in order to concern policymakers: increased overseas outsourcing also undermines wages and working conditions in those jobs left behind and threatens the long-term health of the economy.”
On the Internet censorship side, nations of the global trade community that impose such censorship not only threaten the safety of their own citizens and suppress the basic rights of freedom of speech, but are clearly in violation of the world trade agreements. In December last year, the European Center for International Political Economy (ECIPE) released its document, Protectionism Online: Internet Censorship and International Trade Law. In this 19 page report, it details the violations of WTO trade rules by the Chinese government’s censorship practice, particularly on General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) provisions.
People everywhere understand, cheer for, and support ethical business behaviors. The following pictures, taking in China, show the reaction and support for Google’s courageous move:
A group of friends put together a short note yesterday to offer our solidarity with Google:
To Google Executives,
We applaud your decision to end censorship in China.
Your decision exhibits Google’s high stands on morality, business ethics, and principles of freedom of speech.
The Internet has become the ultimate channel in the battle for the free flow of information and the fundamental human rights of freedom of speech. In the evolution of freedom of information, Google has been a champion, an invaluable resource for people all over the world. However, in recent years, particularly since 2009, China’s censorship of the Internet has intensified to an entirely new level, and business entities are being pressured to surrender to Chinese censorship demands. We understand entirely how difficult it has been for Google to operate in China, we concur completely your assessment that “The decision to review our business operations in China has been incredibly hard, and we know that it will have potentially far-reaching consequences.” That is why we are deeply touched by your decision, and want to use this opportunity to offer our profound support.
Without any doubt, your resolution sets an example for others to follow. It lays the ground work to break a business pattern that puts profitability over and above ethics and principles.
In a short period of less than 24 hours, Google has already become a hero in the eyes of many. You are not alone. The freedom loving communities around the globe are with you!